The SHORT LIVED Constitutional Republic of the United States


The SHORT LIVED Constitutional Republic of the United States.

The dream of a nation where all men were equal and all men were free was not something that just happened to occur overnight.  It wasn’t a frivolous fad created by a few people out of boredom with the status quo.  It came about after decades upon decades of authoritarian rule over a people by an oppressive and uncaring government.

Before there was any discussion or even the thought of a rebellion against their oppressors, there were many attempts made by the colonists to reason with the British Government.  As colonists in a faraway land they had no official representation in the British Parliament where they could more colonial flags 1effectively present their grievances and request mutually agreeable solutions to those grievances.  But even though there were a great many people who volunteered to migrant to the new land in order to start their lives over in hopes of a better existence for themselves and their families, the colonies for the most part were comprised of the dregs of the British Empire.  A great many of the colonists, like the Irish in particular, were shipped to the colonies as slaves.  Others were debtors that were in debtors prison that were shipped off to the colonies as ‘indentured servants’ to the British land owners in order to empty those prisons as well as provide the land owners free labor for their fields.  The British government felt that by giving the British colonial land owners all that free labor, they had done enough for them and were not interested in giving them anymore.

It has often been said by many historians that if the British Government had merely granted the colonists legal representation in Parliament, whether it would have truly benefitted the colonies or not, there never would have been a colonial rebellion and there never would have been a United States of America.

Something as simple as granting a few empty seats in Parliament to an oppressed people could have guaranteed the British flag would continue to fly over the new land named America.  And who really knows what the outcome of that may have been?   There quite probably never would have been a Louisiana Purchase from the French, and Britain would have had to conquer that land.  There quite probably never would have been a California Purchase from Mexico and an Alaska Purchase from Russia as well.  This land would look MUCH different than it does today.

A great many people say that even though the British were quite often ruthless, there also never would have occurred the massive slaughter of the American Indians, and just as it was in India, the American Indians although occupied and under British Rule, would be far larger in numbers than they are today.

But none of that occurred.  Instead the British continued to treat the colonists as second class residents of the British Empire and the spark of revolution was ignited.

Many residents of this new land tried to extinguish that spark before it grew any larger.  However … the colonists learned the hard way how truly oppressive the British could actually be when the occupants of a land the British considered to be theirs did not do as they were instructed to do by the British government.

That spark became a flame that grew steadily larger and the revolution began with the colonists colonialsofficially declaring their independence from the British Empire.  It was a very bloody war complete with all the usual atrocities and acts of barbarism committed by all forces involved that always occur in any war, but the colonies were, and quite by accident, victorious, and the colonies secured their independence.

With their newly acquired independence came the extremely daunting task of creating a functional government for this country.  And it wasn’t something that was achieved overnight.  It took ten years to complete that daunting task.  Initially the founders had the articles of confederation which gave legitimacy to their new nation but they knew they needed something better if they wanted their new country to be truly unique among all other countries.

ALL forms of government were examined by the founders of this nation.  At one point they even considered a royal form of government complete with a king.  That particular idea was short lived.  A democracy was considered but was also rejected because that form of government always resulted in mob rule.  A republic was considered based on the government of ancient Rome, but that likewise was rejected because even though many of the landowners felt that they alone should be in control of the new government, some landowners had much more land than others and as such it would be they who would have majority of the influence in government.

Finally a blending of two previous forms of government was accepted and it was to be based upon a Constitution that guaranteed the citizens of this new country even more than the Magna Carta did for the citizens of Britain.  They blended a democracy with a republic and created a democratic republic where the citizens themselves could actually elect their own representatives to government.  It Founding Fathers in Conference 2became officially known as a Constitutional Republic, because all rights of the citizens including those that were deemed to be inalienable rights of ALL men, were listed in that Constitution which was to be the absolute and unquestionable permanent law of the land.  A law of the land that could only be changed by a written majority approval of all the states comprising this new country.

Not all people were in favor of the type of government that was established for this new nation.  Many people and especially those involved in banking felt that was far too much power granted to all citizens equally.  Complete self-governance had never been tried before and to the bankers it represented a major setback to their collective ambition to actually control this new nation from its’ very beginning stage.  Yes it was definitely a setback, but they also knew that based on human nature alone it would only be a temporary setback.

The ratification of the Constitution in 1789 had an astounding effect on all citizens.  They suddenly realized that now THEY were the actual controllers of their own country.  They were not ruled over by anyone and their government unlike anyplace else was truly THEIR government and was subject to THEM and not the other way around.  It instantly created true American Pride in all citizens.

The country was new and many people did not understand all that much about their new Constitution other than it existed and it actually protected them.  But all of the founders would willingly explain to all who inquired just how great a document it actually was and many times the founders were approached by people for guidance which they gladly gave.  As more copies of it were produced and distributed throughout the land more people were becoming educated in it.  Schools were beginning to appear all through the nation because education was encouraged, and children would actually memorize the Constitution.  Because of that many unscrupulous people were prevented from taking advantage of others.

Although many throughout the land had tried to interpret the words in the Constitution to fit their agendas for personal advancement, as long as any of this nations’ founders remained alive to debunk their attempts, the Constitution and the republic it established remained intact.  As long as any of the founders were alive, the meaning of what was listed in the Constitution would be clearly stated and upheld as the unquestionable written and absolute law of the land.  There was no way for anyone to usurp it.  As long as the founders were alive to defend and enforce it.

The last two founders to die were Charles Carroll in 1832 who was not a signer of the Constitution itself but was a signer of the Declaration of Independence.  However he was a staunch advocate of the Constitution until the day he died.  The longest living signer of the Constitution was James Madison who died in 1836.

The deaths of Carroll and Madison allowed the usurpers of the Constitution to begin in earnest their never ending assault against the law of the land, and they began to make headway almost immediately after Madison’s death.  Because there were no longer any actual founders alive whose statements would unquestionably outweigh any and all attempts to twist the original intent of the wording in the Constitution.

In essence, with none of the actual founders remaining to prevent wrongful interpretation of what was allowed and what was not allowed to occur as outlined in the Constitution, the Original Constitutional Republic setup by the founders of this nation actually died with Madison in 1836.

So in reality the original Constitutional Republic as established by America’s founders only lasted 47 years, though many in government would still try to keep it functioning.  The OFFICAL ending of the republic however was not to occur until 24 years later.

At the time of Madison’s death, this relatively new country was beginning both its’ industrial expansion and territorial expansion age.  Financial empires were beginning to be created inside the United States and along with those empires came attempts by those building those empires to circumvent as well as straight out ignore not only state and local laws that had been established but the law of the land as well.  In the beginning they were quite often stopped in their attempts to do strictly whatever they wanted to do and whenever they wanted to do it by court systems that were still primarily uncorrupted.  But greed is the second most powerful driving force in all humans and these industrialists learned that the same constitution that gave them the freedom to achieve all that they wanted to achieve in this land would also more often than not become a severe hindrance to them as well.

Soon enough and with the wealth they had accumulated that automatically brings with it ‘power’, these industrialists began to join together with the banking concerns to find a way to usurp the Constitution.  However, with only a few potential shortcomings, that National Founding Document was too well written for them to confront openly because the entire nation REVERED it and lived according to it.  So it was decided that the best course of action would be to control all three divisions of the nations’ central government.  THAT would give them the necessary protection they needed to continue to conduct their businesses.

Although personal ambition to excel above all others was their primary driving force, the industrialists were NOT evil men.  They were very DETERMINED men.  All of them were actually very loyal to this new nation that had given them the opportunity to amass great wealth.  They had many different views politically on how this nations’ government should function as well as what the government should let them do as they continued on their chosen paths, but not even one of them had any ambition to dominate this nation politically.  THAT sentiment was exclusive to the banking giants that actually wanted to own and control this entire nation and its’ people.

To this point America’s government was comprised of many different political parties as well as dem-repindependently elected individuals who actually DID represent the combined interests of their constituents.   There were two large political factions though who carried much of the political influence in government, the Democratic-Republicans who were formed in 1828 and the Whigs who were formed as a state’s rights party in 1834 as an opposition party to the Democratic Republican party’s authoritarian policies.  However … the Whigs were to become a short lived political party because they were comprised of both Industrialists from the Northern States and Agriculturalists from the southern States and as such there was constant infighting taking place in that political party. All too often in opposition to the Southern Agriculturalists ideologies the Northern Industrialists would side with the Democratic-Republicans in what was very Whig Partyapparent an anti-southern agenda to control the exports originating in those southern states.  Because the southern states were producing most of what the world wanted and the northern states were not.  In fact around sixty percent of America’s total exports were from the southern states and the northern states were very jealous of that.

With no actual founders remaining alive to firmly settle any political arguments pertaining to the intent of the founders where America’s Constitution was concerned, the northern states began to quite successfully develop the Authoritarian concept of government.  The southern states remained loyal to the concept of a government created and managed by the citizens themselves with the citizens retaining the right to over-rule anything the government attempted to do that was not allowed by this nations Constitution.  Being that the Whig party was comprised of both northern authoritarian government and southern freedom from authoritarian government ideologies the Whig party collapsed which set into motion the events that led to the official collapse of the Constitutional Republic created by the founders of America.  But it wasn’t just the Whig party that would collapse.  There would soon be a complete restructuring of politics and two NEW political parties would be formed.  Two political parties that would actually RULE over America under the guise of being a Republic, but in reality would become a total AUTHORITARIAN government.  Their total and unsuccessfully opposed RULE would continue on to this present day.

Just prior to their collapse as a political party the Whigs were successful in putting a few of their members into the office of President.  The last one to be attempted was an upcoming politician from Illinois named Abraham Lincoln.

Lincoln was sponsored by the northern authoritarians which angered the southern non-authoritarian members of the party.  Lincoln was a firm believer in the authoritarian version of government that Lincolnshould RULE OVER the people which meant that if he actually became President, then he would always favor the ideologies of the authoritarian northern states over the southern states.  His endorsement by the northern states caused the southern states to threaten to dissolve the republic as they were allowed to do in the original Constitution.

The rift between the two sides of the party as well as between the northern and southern states in general became too great as the northern states succeeded and not only placed Lincoln into contention, but succeeded into placing him as President.

As a direct result of placing Lincoln into office, in 1860 beginning with South Carolina, the southern states elected to dissolve the union, and create THEIR OWN country to be known as the CONFEDERATE STATES of America.

THIS was something the northern states could not tolerate because they NEEDED the products the south produced as well as the income from the tariffs that were placed upon those products that were exported.  In addition many of the northern states felt the creation of a separate country in the south would eliminate the natural protection from potential invasion the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico provided the country.

One month after the inauguration of Lincoln, and using an event that allegedly occurred at Fort Sumter* in South Carolina, the Northern States began their invasion of conquest against the New Southern Country that had been created.  The very first battle of that war between the two countries took place with the Battle of Bull Run at which the Confederate Army won a resounding victory.  But … THAT was to be only the First battle of the war and the first of two battles that were to be fought at Bull Run.

The Southern Country had no interest in conquest.  They had absolutely no desire to conquer the north.  They only wanted their Independence.  If they had seized upon the victory they achieved at the first battle of Bull Run and continued on into the city of Washington DC and captured it, then the war confederate flagwould have been over right then and there and they would have won the Independence they sought.  But they didn’t, and the northern states regrouped and invaded the southern states in a very savagely brutal war of aggression to conquer those states and force them to remain in the Union.  Under Lincoln’s personal orders to his generals, they were to totally destroy the south and permanently break its’ will to be free, which they definitely did.  When the war itself was over, the northern armies of occupation continued the brutalization as well as humiliation of the southerners, instilling in the southerners a deep seeded hatred for the north that would last through many subsequent generations.

The victors in any conflict have always retained the “right” to write as well as rewrite history.  As such the history of the War Between the States was rewritten to be a “civil war” when in reality it was NO SUCH THING.  It has also been taught to where MOST now firmly believe it, that the entire war was fought over ‘slavery’ and it most definitely was NOT fought primarily because of slavery.  Slavery played a much lesser role in the conflict than the teachings of today always tend to portray.  In fact Lincoln himself was not truly anti-slavery.  He merely created slavery as a political issue to run against in the now famous Lincoln-Douglas debates.  But if people were to read Lincoln’s inaugural address they would realize that much of what has been falsely lauded upon him in the teaching of history is exactly that … false.  Lincoln was a pure authoritarian government politician who upheld the wishes of his financial backers and totally suspended the original Constitution and started the war of aggression against the new southern country that had formed, and forcibly brought it back in to the Union, but in a more subservient position than they had held before.

Lincoln actually enjoyed the role of “conqueror” to such a degree that immediately after the war was over, he ordered his generals to commit genocide and completely wipe out the Indian Nations to the Lincoln and some generalswest in order for his American Industrialist backers as well as the bankers to safely expand their personal areas of operation and increase their wealth even more.  But the history being taught in American schools for the past hundred years or so does everything short of elevate Lincoln to actual sainthood.

When the War Between the States was over, the Constitution created by America’s founders was never actually completely reinstated.  The initial republic itself was over.  The excuse given was primarily the same excuse that is given today when “government” wants to expand its’ control over the citizens.  It was for the “security” of the people.  Some people objected to the new losses of their previously guaranteed freedoms but were quickly quieted by America’s now purely authoritarian government.  Government had now become officially a government OVER the people instead of a government under the control of the people.

Citizens though can be extremely difficult to control, especially since they vastly outnumber those who want to control them.  But something had been learned shortly before Lincoln came to power and shutdown the Constitution altogether.  Citizens could actually be induced to cast their votes for a specific candidate and political party using pageantry complete with theme songs and catchy phrases.  Prior to that elections were boring and people were losing interest in WHO should represent them in government.  They had their Constitution to protect them and guarantee them their freedom to live and aspire and that was all that mattered to them.  MOST were not even aware that their constitution was already beginning to become “regulated” in many areas of the country because there was not any mass national communication available to them.  Most of what they learned came to them many weeks and even months after it actually occurred.

From that point on, no matter where they traveled, politicians were met with prearranged marching bands and pageantry, thus elevating them even more in the eyes of their constituents.   With the help of all that pageantry, regular everyday citizens just by human nature alone began to look UP to those in government office instead of continuing to regard them as employees of the people as the founders had intended.

As mentioned earlier, after the War Between the States ended, the entire political structure of government changed and two political parties would be formed and emerge victorious over all others.dem-rep 2  They were essentially the same group that was in at the start of the war but being that they also had internal differences they split off into two separate political parties and became the Democratic Party and the Republican Party.  They still controlled the government but being that they were part of the same group to begin with only now as individual parties they agreed to work together from that point on to keep all other political parties and individuals from even acquiring political office, much less gaining any significant size and influence.  They had learned that with enough pageantry and early republican partycontinually pointing the finger of “blame” at each other’s group and ONLY at each other’s group they could successfully create the illusion that only those two political parties were viable contenders for political office.  THEY SUCCEEDED MASSIVELY and the unsuspecting citizens totally fell for their illusion.

So complete was their success that for generations to come, the foolish citizens would politically divide their loyalties between only these two groups.  It even became a parentally indoctrinated loyalty where parents would actually teach their children that the political group their parents were loyal to should be the only group their children should be loyal to.

With the end of the War Between the States the government had become completely authoritarian and it would remain that way for generations to come. But always remaining quietly in the background were the bankers who still sought to totally control this nation and its’ people.  Both sides of the political party that controlled this nation would require more and more financing as their pageantry spectacles became more widespread and even elaborate.  Also advertising needed to be done which required even more financing.  The bankers were always quick to provide that financing both in the form of loans that needed to be repaid with interest added as well as “investment” money that would require certain privileges and influence to be granted.

Eventually the bankers had enough control to the point where on December 23rd 1913 without giving any prior knowledge of it and without the consent of the citizens, they actually were successful in openly purchasing the entirety of America from politicians that had absolutely no right or even true authority to sell it, and the Federal Reserve was created, giving these private bankers complete and absolute control over not only the nations’ own currency, but over the entire nation and everything and everyone in it as well.  It was signed into law by Woodrow Wilson.

From that point on there was no stopping the bankers.  They totally owned and controlled all three branches of government; they totally owned and controlled both of the political parties that Americans were duped intoBankers 5 granting complete control of their nation to; they controlled ALL elections by controlling ALL the nominations and primaries.  The country was finally completely THEIRS to do with as they pleased.  Then to maintain order and obedience in their government they created the IRS and the personal income tax where congress could “borrow” all the money it wanted and have the obligation of repayment placed solely upon the citizens of the land.  They created thousands of penalty laws for nonpayment of their personal income tax, and thus had a direct lean on everything in America including the very lives of it’s’ citizens.  They totally enslaved the entire nation to their will, and it has remained that way ever since.

Having learned from experience, they continued to tout the now nonexistent government OF the people ideology and the people continued to fall for it.  No matter how many laws and regulations their privately owned government passed to restrict and steadfastly enslave the population even more, they always touted the illusion that America was STILL a Constitutional Republic and congress was always and only doing the “will of the people”.

We have had an AUTHORITARIAN GOVERNMENT ruling OVER this nation for 179 years now and our financial owners are now getting ready to issue in their final objective which is to convert us from having an NWO 1authoritarian government to having a complete TOTALITARIAN government where ALL rights will be taken away from the citizens.  They have owned and controlled ALL three branches of government since 1913 and they have worked painstakingly slow to get us to this point in our very well-orchestrated demise as a nation.  The administration of George Bush Jr. was used to setup a nationwide Army specifically for controlling the population and preventing any open and especially armed opposition to the final takedown of America.  Bush and our owners got away with violating the posse comitatus act by declaring this army to be a “security force”, and it was all done with the overall supportive consent of the populace, because it was done immediately after what has now become a questionable act of war against this nation on 9/11/01.  The southern border was erased and millions upon millions were actually invited in to this nation in complete violation of our immigration laws because those laws are no longer considered valid by America’s owners.  Those invaders were immediately placed on taxpayer funded government financial assistance which again in itself was illegal.  This present authoritarian government is NWO 2even closing off from the public more and more of what used to be public land with no valid reasons stated for their actions.  ALL of the authoritarian bureaucracies that have been established are now increasing their stranglehold on America, and ALL that the public does is whine and complain about it because they have suffered so very many losses at the hands of their financial MASTERS that they have become used to all of it.

The Big Brother state described by George Orwell in his book titled 1984 was absolutely nothing at all compared to what is now happening in this once free nation.

In one of his books titled ‘Brave New World Revisited’ (published in 1958), the English writer and philosopher Aldous Huxley who died in 1963, just prior to the turbulent transformation of America resulting in the owner sanctioned open Marxist socialist takeover of the democrat side of the political party of America’s owners stated:

‘Under the relentless thrust of accelerating over-population and increasing over-organization, and by means of ever more effective methods of mind-manipulation, the democracies will change their nature; the quaint old forms—elections, parliaments, Supreme Courts and all the rest—will remain. The underlying substance will be a new kind of non-violent totalitarianism. All the traditional names, all the hallowed slogans will remain exactly what they were in the good old days. Democracy and freedom will be the theme of every broadcast and editorial—but Democracy and freedom in a strictly Pickwickian sense. Meanwhile the ruling oligarchy and its highly trained elite of soldiers, policemen, thought-manufacturers and mind-manipulators will quietly run the show as they see fit.’

1Huxley was no “visionary”.  Huxley was just one of the very few people in the world that actually paid attention to what had occurred; what was occurring THEN and possessing LOGIC was easily able to state NOT as a prediction but rather WHAT DEFINITELY WAS ON THE WAY.

If Americans had only cared enough about the country that so many had died to create for them, as well as so many millions more had died to actually preserve for them, they would not have out of pure unadulterated IGNORANCE given it all away, and traded the actual reality of freedom for nothing more than slogans creating the illusion of actual freedoms that they no longer possess.

In conclusion, it took around 10 years for our founders to construct what was the most perfect form of government imaginable.  They created a Constitutional Republic that out of sheer IGNORANCE of the citizens of the country they created … In REALITY only lasted 47 years and died along with the final remaining founder of this nation.




  • I used the term ‘allegedly’ when referring to the attack on Ft. Sumter because agenda driven corruption in our government complete with fabricated stories is not something that is unique to this day and age. Just like the incident in the Gulf of Tonkin that entered America into a totally senseless war in South Vietnam was completely fabricated by America’s “government” and never took place at all, it is very possible that whatever may have taken place at Ft. Sumter was either exaggerated in order to begin the North’s war of aggression against the South, or like the Gulf of Tonkin it may actually have never occurred to begin with.

Political commentary from writers – We no longer have a constitution

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TONY GUY A political commentary writer that never fails to arouse the emotions of the readers. Literally hated by liberals and has been called heartless, pompous, arrogant, self-righteous, one sided, too matter of fact and unyielding in his commentaries. But has never been proven wrong by those attempting to put forth a rebuttal to what he writes. There is no “middle area” in his articles and commentaries. Everything is right or wrong, good or bad, black or white with no gray areas. He is not an indoctrinated follower of the established mainstream media and he has no qualms about telling people that they themselves are primarily at fault for America’s pending collapse, and as such is disliked by many who align themselves with the conservative side of any and all issues as well. But his writing is interesting to say the least.


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    The government our forefathers envisioned is essentially an honor system. Predicated on the honesty and integrity of the elected officials. We now have a government full of people who have neither. And, sadly their constituents don’t seem to care past their i-phones. Short lived indeed.

    • Tony Guy

      I have to totally agree with that, as well as ADD that ALL that has been done to destroy this nation and actually enslave it’s citizens, has been done with the SUPPORTIVE CONSENT of the people themselves.

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    Rolf Lindgren on

    The article looks OK, but I would not describe the republic as short lived. In 1912, the federal budget was only 1.75% of GDP, no bigger than it had been 100 years earlier.

    • Tony Guy

      The Federal Budget has nothing to do with this nation no longer being a constitutional republic. First comes the transfer of authority and the gradual acceptance of it by the public as a whole. The Federal budget began to escalate only after the actual sale of America to a private banking concern in 1913 and the allowance of congress to “borrow” all they wanted from this private bank with the burden of repayment of all they took placed upon the citizens themselves and not upon congress.

      • Avatar
        Rolf Lindgren on

        As recently as 1963 the average person still had quite a bit of liberty and the economy was decent and relatively free of licensing & regulation. Patent law was not out of control. That all changed on November 22, 1963.

        • Tony Guy

          By the time 1963 had come this nation had already experienced the great depression which was later found to have been spurred on by the Fed itself. There were not all that many liberties remaining that were not already being regulated by the “government” in one way or another.

          • Avatar
            Rolf Lindgren on

            Of course, if you argue the size of the federal budget has nothing to do with whether we are a Constitutional republic, that would be a good argument for getting rid of the Constitutional Republic if we could cut the budget down to 1.75% of GDP. So watch out what you argue for.

          • Tony Guy

            Prior to the absolute control over this nation passing from the people themselves to the government, those placed into political office were very restricted as to what they could and could not do. If the government needed funds and needed to borrow those funds, they were required to disclose what they needed, why they needed it and what it would ultimately cost to acquire those funds as well as how it would be repaid. Once the absolute control of the nation passed to the government itself, it was able to borrow whatever it wanted, whenever it wanted and the public was told afterwards. Once the government was in reality SOLD to the private bankers, the floodgates to all the funds they wanted were opened and the IRS was created by the Fed itself to actually force upon the public the burden of repayment for anything and everything the “government” chose to “borrow”. That was not a good reason for getting rid of the constitutional republic. Bringing back the constitutional republic and forcing the government to once again be accountable to the people, would be the way to reign in if not totally stop the wasteful spending of the government.

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    Very well done. Nice to know you know the truth.

    I would argue, though, the statement of…”But the history being taught in American schools for the past hundred years or so does everything short of elevate Lincoln to actual sainthood.”….is not entirely correct, as they Have elevated the bastard to “sainthood” with all their monuments, statues, giant carvings into mountan sides, and “schools” named after him, not only that, but his genocidial maniac generals as well, Sherman, Grant, ect.

    As far as the alleged event at Ft. Sumter, you are correct. I would further add the fact that it was Lincoln that committed the third act of war against the Confederate States by ordering the resupply of Sumter, for you see;

    Buchannan actually committed the first act of war by ordering Anderson to take Sumter in the dead of night on the 26th of December. Remember, South Carolina seceeded on Dec. 20th.

    South Carolina officials made clear that the U.S. Army staying in Sumter was NOT an option and that resupply or reinforcements would be viewed as a hostile act.

    Then the second act of war was the attempted resupply of Sumter on January 9th. On January 9th, an unarmed steamer, the Star of the West, approached Charleston harbor intent on reinforcing Sumter with more troops and ammunition. Charleston batteries fired warning shots near the ship and the Star of the West turned and fled.

    Then Lincoln essentially declared war in his inaugural address March 4th in which he promised not to invade or attack any one EXCEPT…EXCEPT to hold the forts and property of the U.S. government for the purpose of collecting tariffs. In essence, he was denying the right of secession and promising to invade the southern states and force them back into the Union.

    Lincoln refused to meet with Confederate emissaries sent to negotiate full payment for U.S. properties now within the jurisdiction of the C.S.A. U.S. Secretary of State Seward gave mixed signals, suggesting that evacuation of the forts was likely — in fact, all senior U.S. military officers recommended immediate evacuation to Lincoln.

    Instead, Lincoln ordered a flotilla of war ships with additional troops and supplies to Charleston, then advised Confederate officials that it was coming to “resupply” Sumter, “by force if necessary.”

    Rather than wait for war ships and the greater likelihood of loss of life on both sides, the Confederates decided to force a surrender before they arrived. Anderson was given a final chance to evacuate Sumter, given a deadline and told when the bombardment would commence. He replied that he would not evacuate.

    The bombardment commenced on April 12th and Anderson surrendered on April 14th due to fears the magazine (with powder and ordnance) would ignite. No one was killed during the bombardment and Anderson’s garrison was allowed to peacefully leave the fort .

    Though he made force necessary, Lincoln had succeeded in provoking the Confederates to fire the first shots and it had the desired effect: it incited a war fever in the North. On April 15th, Lincoln called for 75,000 volunteers to invade the southern states to force their return to the Union, or as he phrased it, to quell “a rebellion.”

    As a result of Lincoln’s call for a coercive force, four more states seceded in protest to join forces with the C.S.A. Virginia seceded April 17th and North Carolina, Arkansas and Tennessee followed in short order.

    The stealthy taking of Fort Sumter was an act of war. The stated intention to insert more men and ammunition BY FORCE was another act of war. The bombardment of Fort Sumter to force its surrender was an act of war, but it was NOT the first act of war in the conflict.

    But….you are100% correct that it all ended with Lincoln.

    • Avatar

      VERY GOOD expansion on the history lesson Zak. FACTS that will NEVER be allowed to be learned of in the schools of this nation. In American “education” usurpers are glorified and the actual founders of this nation are now demonized. Unfortunately MOST do not really care about what REALLY occurred in America’s history.

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